Animals engage in various kinds of social interations. In this lesson we learn about the breeder/helper social behaviors of animals. This includes primary helpers and secondary helpers as they relate to altruistic behaviors between individuals.
There are individuals known as breeders and helpers in groups of various species. The helpers can be categories into two differet groups, primary and secondary. These forms of altruism are more common than reciprocity because individuals who participate in reciprocity run the reick of never being repaid. This careful calibrative altruism to relatives will be repaid. An alternative to the helpers are known as delayers. They do not help or mate and will wait until the next mating season. For example, a male pied king fisher who can not mate can either be a primary, secondary, or delayer.
The primary helpers will help relatives. This increases their indirect fitness since they are helping relatives with the same genes. Seconday helpers will help non-relatives. This is possibly because of post pone cooperation. The seconday helper will hope to inherit the mating site and this leads to direct fitness. The evolution of this seconday help has been promoted by natural selection due to it gain in direct fitness for helpful individuals. The delayer will not use any of their energy to help relatives or non-relatives and will wait until the next season to mate.
Altruism differes between vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrate are involved in facilitative altruism. This type of altruism is flexable or opertunistic in nature. Invertebrates are involved in obligate altruism. This form of altruism has such a long standing pattern of favorable conditions for eusocialism the workers have to work through evolution.
Environment vs. Genes for Behavior
Cooperative breeding is linked to monogamy because there is more relatedness in cooperative groups.
Cricket Ethogram Lab